All Terrain Vehicles – Driving A Dangerous Machine Safely

Car paint protection Adelaide coating is different because it creates a unique plasticised barrier which, unlike wax or polish, molecularly bonds to paintwork, leaving a glass-like finish, which helps prevent oxidising and fading. All terrain vehicles” or ATV is a general term applied on vehicles with three or four low-pressure tires, including amphibious ones. They are designed to travel on inhospitable terrain, and because of this, they are sturdy, stable and supposed to be, safe for rough and rugged ground. However, sturdy as they may be, all terrain vehicles should be operated only by those qualified and skilled enough to do so. Do not attempt it if you are not trained.

How to Operate an All Terrain Vehicle – Driving

• Get acquainted with all terrain vehicles first. Learn as many things as possible about these fascinating, tough machines. Surf the net, read the manuals and slough through magazines about them. Be sure to get to know and ask people who have actually used an ATV.

• Get use to the feel of driving first. First, observe how ATV drivers navigate the rough terrain. Ask them questions if you want. Try seating in one and imagine how you would control it when it is in motion. Do not try to go to really rugged terrain at once. Try the gentler, more manageable terrains in the beginning. Also, do not get on a three-wheel ATV at once. The four-wheel models are more stable and best for beginners. Learn to crawl before you walk.

• Get professional instruction. An all terrain driving instructor can help you learn and master driving an all terrain vehicle. There are also lectures about ATVs which you can attend. You can get reliable recommendations from ATV magazines.

All Terrain Vehicle Driving – Things to Consider

• Your first consideration if you want to drive an all terrain vehicle would be safety. Make sure that you are properly protected from any bump or spill that will most likely occur. Helmets, sturdy shoes, jackets and eye protection should be worn when you are driving an ATV. Injuries and deaths are not uncommon among ATV users.

• Second, you must be skilled and strong enough to control this powerful machine. Never underestimate it. They come with no suspension, except that offered by the tires. They also weigh up to 600 pounds so they are quite difficult to control. You are most likely to be tossed and bumped in all directions and strength to withstand this, and to control the wheel, are absolutely necessary.

•Third, never jeopardize the life of other people by attempting to drive an all terrain vehicle under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Moreover, never let a passenger ride with you especially if you are not that experienced. Most of these vehicles are designed to take on just one person – the driver. If you have to, check with the manufacturer if a passenger is allowed.

ATVs are for the adventurous, rugged type of people who love the challenge of controlling and mastering a powerful machine. It is not for the timid or the weak. But bravery without any ounce of precaution is still quite dangerous. You can enjoy all terrain vehicles but be wise enough to acquire the necessary skill before driving them.


“Electricity How” – Is That a Question?

The phrase: “Electricity How” – A conundrum at the least?

According to Google 368,000 searches on the keyword phrase “electricity how” were conducted globally in one month. What are people asking or looking for? Electrician Brisbane 24 hours is here to please you, from repairs, Diagnosis rectification work, New Appliances, Air conditioning to switchboard upgrades, safety switch installs

Certainly, electricity is one of the great mysteries.

On the one hand, it is everywhere in our ordinary daily lives. We simply wouldn’t know how to live without it today. Virtually everything we do is powered by electricity.

So, in one sense it is very familiar, and commonplace.

We also know it can be very dangerous, even lethal.

But, what is electricity?

I do not pretend to really understand it. But, I find it fascinating and worthy of discussion and speculation.

To that end, there is a website sited below I find entertaining and stimulating.

One of the missions of this site is to allow people to dialog and speculate and share information and ideas about electricity. Some things will be very down to earth and practical, others very esoteric and almost metaphysical.

This short article is intended to stimulate a discussion and get the ball rolling so to speak. You are invited to participate by leaving comments or contributing guest blogs.

Here are some thoughts from a non-scientist, non-electrician, non-historian, just a humble math teacher.

Our ancestors were vaguely aware of electricity in the form of lightening and static electrical sparks. They also were aware of magnetism via lodestones (were there any other magnetic materials they knew of?). However, they probably didn’t see much connection between these three phenomena. They probably didn’t think these things were very important. Til the house burned down, or the compass failed.

In the 1700’s Ben Franklin began to gain some understanding of electricity to the point he invented the lightning rod and the battery. In fact, one could argue the American Revolution hinged on Ben’s fame as a scientist when he visited France on the Revolution’s behalf.

In the 1800’s the great experimentalist Michael Faraday was the first to demonstrate the intimate connection between electric current and magnetic forces with his discovery of Faraday’s Laws. Then, the great physicist James Clerk Maxwell was able to construct a mathematical model of electromagnetism known as Maxwell’s Equations.

Thus, electricity and magnetism were irrevocably united. Indeed, one can not have one without the other. There is one Electromagnetic force. Magnets move and induce electric current, and current creates magnetic force.

Indeed, Maxwell’s equations became the basis of modern electrical technologies.

Furthermore, Maxwell’s equations yielded the concept of the electromagnetic wave, of which light is just one example. Electromagnetic waves travel at varying frequencies, but with one constant speed which is invariant regardless of the movement of the observer. This speed is called c, the speed of light.

This invariant speed of light in turn led the physicist Albert Einstein to create his famous Theory of Special Relativity in 1905. This totally altered forever our concept of time and space. (General Relativity in 1915 was an even greater tour de force which explained the relationship of mass and gravity to space-time, but that’s another story for another time.)

But, electricity was just getting warmed up!

The best was still ahead.

In the late 1800’s and early 1900’s, the greatest electrical engineer of all time, Nikola Tesla, applied Maxwell’s equations and invented the AC electric dynamo which became the basis of our modern industrial revolution. The original was of course driven by mechanical and hydraulical (sic) concepts.

Then came the amazing Richard Feynman, et. al.

Quantum mechanics was developed by several great physicists in the early 1900’s. Guys like Bohr, Heisenberg, Schrödinger, and Dirac developed the quite unintuitive theory of quantum mechanics after Max Planck and Einstein made their observations of the quantum nature of light.

But, how did electricity fit in?

Feynman and others developed the first quantum treatment of electricity and light, known as QED, Quantum Electro Dynamics.

Talk about non-intuitive.

What is an electron?

Is it a point or a wave?

No one really knows. Both, neither, or something wholly mysterious?

When measured it seems to be always an infinitesimally small piece of matter with some mass and something called charge, and “spin”.

But, when observed it seems to somehow travel in all possible paths from one point to another simultaneously with most of the paths somehow canceling out. This is indisputable and is what explains many otherwise mysterious phenomena.

Indeed, it can be experimentally verified that an electron somehow passes through two slits at the same time. This is the famous double slit experiment that verifies the amazing quantum equations governing the electron’s behavior

This can probably be best understood by a layman by reading Feynman’s great book, QED. In my opinion, this is the best “look” into the mind of a genius that exists.

If this confuses you, you are in good company. And, I don’t mean “yours truly” even though I don’t pretend to even begin to understand it all.

And, I haven’t even mentioned Bell’s Theorem which is truly mind blowing. I may discuss it and several other ideas in an expanded article on the website.

Oh yes. The better company?

The brilliant physicist of QED fame, Nobel Prize winner, Richard Feynman, said that anyone who claims to understand QED proves they don’t understand it at all. And, He invented it.

The so called “wave” is a mathematical “fiction”. The electron satisfies a mathematical differential equation called the Schrödinger Wave Equation. But, its solutions are what are called complex functions. They don’t really have any intuitive physical interpretation. The Equation just happens to be similar in form to equations that do represent real physical waves. But, in this situation there is nothing physical they model. Their solution is called “amplitudes”, which yield probabilities when “squared”.

So, here we are in the 21st century. Much of our modern technology, think Laser et al, rests on QED, which in turn is a theory we have no real physical understanding of other that what can be described as “weird” physical experiments.

Of course, nature also depends on this weird physics. Recently, it has been discovered that photosynthesis, the basis of all life on earth, depends on a quantum mechanical effect.

God only knows where Bell’s Theorem will lead us. Perhaps Dr. William Tiller’s great ideas will help us. Another discussion for another day.

Well, this article just scratches the surface of addressing the question of “Electricity How”. I don’t even know whether to end it in a period or question mark.

And, to engage in the further conversation you are invited to visit us at [] and leave your comments. Oh yes, there is an interesting free report there on Practical Electricity too.

This article was written by Craig Hane, Ph.D., Chairman, QPI, Inc.

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Am I Capable of Installing My Own Salt Pool Chlorinator?

How to Install Your Own Salt Pool Chlorinator System

As with many new technologies, the mystery surrounding saltwater pools has quickly given way to general acceptance and the do-it-yourself crowd has said, “That looks like something I can do myself!” Fortunately, they are correct and people with basic home-handy skills are converting their pools to salt in record numbers, and saving a great deal of money in the process. This article may help you decide if this project is a good fit for you. Today pool removal Sydney is different and more whether we work in a confined place of underground area.

The process of converting a standard chlorine pool to a salt water pool is quite simple and revolves around the installation of a chlorine generator. Remarkably, the pool industry has yet to form a consensus on what to call this category of equipment. Some call them chlorine generators but some refer to them as salt chlorinators. Others still call them saline systems or simply salt pool systems. In some parts of the world, they are known as electrolyzers. They are all the same thing, a device that breaks down salt molecules and releases sanitizer into the pool water. Universally, they have two major components; a power supply and a generating “cell” that the water passes through. On one component or the other, a control allows the user to regulate the amount of sanitizer delivered. Beyond these basics, various brands have an array of differences, mostly in the electronics and in the design of the cell.

Sophisticated salt chlorinators have digital circuitry programmed to monitor the salinity and temperature of the water and provide self-regulated power to the cell. The displays make it easy for the pool owner to know that the unit is functioning normally and provide alerts when it’s time to add more salt. The circuits also apply power to the cell in a way that maximizes cell life. Moreover, modern units all have circuitry that minimizes the need to clean the cell and they work at low salinity levels that are generally safe for all modern pool equipment and finishes. Although the troublesome stories still resonate in some corners, the old days of salt brine tanks with high salinity levers have gone the way of floppy disks. Today’s salt pool systems work with pool water that is less salty than the solution we wash our contacts in. You can’t taste it and you don’t notice anything but a soft sensation to the water. The point is, all of your existing pool equipment is fine. Don’t throw anything away!

Step one to installing your salt chlorinator is probably already done; Make certain that your pool water is balanced. Dust off the test kit and check the PH, Total Alk, and Hardness. If needed, make some adjustments.

Next, add the salt directly to the pool. Depending on your manufacturer, this will require from 30 to 40 pounds of pure salt, per 1000 gallons of water! If you don’t know how many gallons of water are in your pool, you must do the math…there is no “standard size.” For rectangular pools, it’s easy to multiply the average length X average width X average depth and then multiply times 7.5. For other shapes, there are many online resources that provide various formulas. Pool salt is available everywhere these days. All the home improvement centers, hardware stores, and some big box stores have it. You may also use water softener salt but steer away from any that have additives such as rust inhibitors. If you find food grade salt, make certain it is not iodized. Don’t be intimidated if it seems like you are adding a lot of salt to the pool. You have a lot of water and it’s only a teaspoon per gallon. Within several hours of dumping the salt over the side, it will dissolve, never to be seen again!

Now, you are ready to install the equipment; the cell and the control module. There are some installation differences between brands but basically, the plumbing job and electrical hookup are the same. It’s all simple stuff but it’s not a BBQ grill so read the instructions before cutting into anything.

I recommend starting with the plumbing. The position of the cell will be dictated largely by the location of your filter, heater, and control valves and in the next step, you will locate the power module so that the “cell cord” reaches the cell. This electric connection between the power supply and the cell is usually soldered in place and has a proprietary plug so there is no extending it. Most in-ground pools use 2″ plumbing but some are 1.5″ so figure out what you have before driving to the store. Some brands of chlorine generators are made to work with both sizes but if needed, you can buy adaptors, known as bushings. Locate the pipe that leads from the filter (or heater if you have one) and identify a section of pipe that will allow you to plumb in the cell. In most cases, you will be eliminating the plastic chlorine tablet dispenser and installing the cell in its place. Use whatever number of couplings or elbows necessary to route the water through the cell and then back to the return pipe. Having said that, try to minimize the complexity of the route and keep back pressure to a minimum. Also, when possible, provide around eight inches of straight pipe between all turns, for the same reason. Lastly, use additional pipe if necessary to raise the height of the cell for easy inspection and service. (Or go buy a pair of good knee-pads.) I won’t go into the details of gluing PVC pipe because it’s easy and most people have done it before. If this is your first time, there are some good videos via Google and the rest. I do recommend using good quality cement such as Gorilla PVC Glue or Red Hot Medium Duty PVC Cement. Dry fit everything first and be certain that it’s going to work out before gluing to the actual cell fittings. Pay attention to the direction of the water flow through the cell. With some brands it matters and with others, it does not. All good chlorine generator cells come with threaded unions so that once the cell is glued in, you can remove it easily without cutting pipe. Lastly, some brands have a flow switch that must also be plumbed in. Installing this backwards will guarantee that your unit never comes on, so again, pay attention to the direction of the water flow.

The next step is simply mounting the control module (power supply) in a spot that is easy for you to get to and also within reach of the electric cord that feeds power to the cell. In most cases, this is on the wall next to your timer or pump switch and the package will include the hardware need for this attachment. In some cases, it may be necessary to install a post for mounting the control so that every thing reaches.

The final step is connecting AC power to the unit and while many if not most do-it-yourselfers find this an easy thing, I would caution you to call an electrician if you are not totally comfortable working with electricity. A few brands offer units with plugs that simply plug into an available GFCI outlet. Most brands are made to be hardwired but could also easily be converted to the plug in variety with a $4 plug from the hardware store. Except in the Deep South and parts of Florida, most pool equipment is set up to run on 220 volts and most salt chlorinators default to this voltage. If you only have 110v at the equipment pad, speak with your vendor before ordering your system. Most will gladly set it up for 110v before shipping and save you the trouble of converting it. A description of the electrical codes that may apply to the hookup of any pool equipment is outside the scope of this article but suffice to say that they are there for a reason. You want equipment that is properly grounded and connected in a way that will not be compromised by weather or a child that tugs on a hanging wire. Do it right or not at all and call a licensed electrician if you are unsure of anything.

When everything is connected, turn on your pump and wait for the system to pressurize, checking everywhere for leaks. Once you are happy with your plumbing job, turn on the salt chlorinator and follow the set up instructions.

Congratulations. You now have a salt pool! Give your left over chlorine tablets to your brother-in-law so he can save up for his own chlorine generator. Good job!

This information provided by Don Uhle, President of Pace Research Ltd. in Houston, Texas. With his brother Ken Uhle, Don heads up PoolBids, the original web-based connection for homeowners and reputable swimming pool builders. Since 1997, PoolBids has helped over ten thousand homeowners in their quest for the ideal backyard pool and maintains a network of over 200 pre-screened pool builders throughout the continental United States. Their sister company, Discount Salt Pool, provides specialized pool equipment to pool builders and directly to the public via the website With a line up that includes all popular brands, Discount Salt Pool provides conversion kits, parts, and lot’s of free advice. Call them with your questions anytime at 866-766-5243.

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Driveway Paving: Hiring a Contractor to Pave Your Driveway

A paved driveway offers a number of advantages over one that is made of gravel. Not only does it look better but it is also easier to maintain. It also reduces the risk that your car will be scratched by a stone. Paving a driveway is a major job and it is not cheap. Therefore you have to make sure that you know how to find the best contractor for the job. In order to do this you have to know exactly what is involved in paving a driveway so that you know what to look for in a contractor’s bid. How much does a concrete driveway cost? That’s the question that most of all always ask well for me it depends of the area of your driveway and not only that the materials as well.

The most important thing that you have to look at when you are having a driveway paved is the prep work. You have to make sure that the driveway is poured on a well prepared base. This is something that you have to make sure that you discuss with your contractor. In most cases the cheapest bids that you will get will be from companies that do not do this part of the job properly. If you choose to use a cheap contractor you will find that your driveway does not last more than a couple of years.

A proper base for a driveway requires that the area be excavated to a depth of at least a foot; this is going to cost you quite a bit of money because excavating that deep is not easy. You will then need six to eight inches of aggregate put in as a sub-base. This is will support the whole driveway so it has to be done properly. The sub-base also needs to be thoroughly compacted and allow for efficient drainage of water. Make sure that any bid that you get from a contractor includes this work and that the depth and the amount of aggregate is specified in the bid.

The next part of the driveway is the base layer; this should be at least two inches thick. It is important to remember when you are getting a bid for your driveway that the bid specify that the base be at a compacted thickness of two inches. If not you may find that they pour two inches of asphalt and then compact it down to a much smaller amount. Two inches is necessary to make sure that your driveway can support the weight of your car.

After the base layer is done the final step in paving a driveway is the top layer which should be at least one and a half inches thick. The important thing here is to make sure that the proper asphalt mix is used. There are broadly speaking two classes of asphalt, class one is used for the base while class two is used for the top. There are a lot of different mixtures within the two classes and the right one will depend mainly on the climate where you live. For this you are largely going to have to trust that the contractor knows what he is doing and will use the proper asphalt. This is why you need to make sure that you work with somebody who has a lot of experience.

On last thing that you should make sure is included in the bid that you receive is the slope of the driveway to allow for drainage. You don’t want water pooling in the middle of your driveway so it should slope down from the center towards the sides. Normally a slope of a quarter inch for each foot of distance is ideal. A contractor will know the proper slope but you want to make sure that this is included in the bid so that there is no confusion.

Actually finding a contractor to pave your driveway should not be all that hard, there are a lot of them. The best place to start is to ask for referrals from people that you know. If you know somebody who has had their driveway paved they could probably recommend somebody. Another option is if you know any general contractors who build houses they could be a great source as they work with paving contractors all the time. The goal here is to make a list of at least five contractors that you can research further.

The next thing that you are going to want to do before you hire a paving contractor is a background check. This you can do with your state Attorney General’s office. They will be able to tell you if the contractor has had any complaints lodged against them; they will also be able to tell you if they are properly licensed. It is also a good idea to talk to the local Better Business Bureau to see if they have received any complaints about a contractor.

The next step is to contact the contractors that you are interested in and talk to them about the work that you need done. The main thing that you are looking for here is to find out how easy they are going to be to work with. You should also be able to get a good feel for whether or not they know what they are doing, it should be pretty obvious if they don’t. At this stage you are also going to want to make sure that they are bonded and insured, don’t even consider hiring a contractor who isn’t.

Once you have verified that a contractor is properly licensed, bonded and insured and that they are somebody that you are comfortable working with you will want to get bids from a few of them. You don’t need a bid from dozens of contractors, three should be sufficient. The big thing is to make sure that the bid specifies exactly what is included. This is why it is important that you know what is involved in paving a driveway so that you can make sure that everything that needs to be included is included. Once you have a few bids you will want to choose the one that will best meet your needs, rarely is this the cheapest one.

A paved driveway can really improve the look of your home. That being said depending on where you live a concrete driveway may be a better option. It is important to be able to decide which is better a paved or a concrete driveway.

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